# Riemann theorem

## Riemann's theorem on conformal mappings

Given any two simply-connected domains $G _ {1}$ and $G _ {2}$ of the extended complex plane $\overline{\mathbf C}$, distinct from $\overline{\mathbf C}$ and also from $\overline{\mathbf C}$ with a point excluded from it, then an infinite number of analytic single-valued functions on $G _ {1}$ can be found such that each one realizes a one-to-one conformal transformation of $G _ {1}$ onto $G _ {2}$. In this case, for any pair of points $a \in G _ {1}$, $a \neq \infty$, and $b \in G _ {2}$ and any real number $\alpha$, $0 \leq \alpha \leq 2 \pi$, a unique function $f$ of this class can be found for which $f( a) = b$, $\mathop{\rm arg} f ^ { \prime } ( a) = \alpha$. The condition $\mathop{\rm arg} f ^ { \prime } ( a) = \alpha$ geometrically means that each infinitely-small vector emanating from the point $a$ changes under the transformation $w = f( z)$ into an infinitely-small vector the direction of which forms with the direction of the original vector the angle $\alpha$.

Riemann's theorem is fundamental in the theory of conformal mapping and in the geometrical theory of functions of a complex variable in general. In addition to its generalizations to multiply-connected domains, it finds wide application in the theory of functions of a complex variable, in mathematical physics, in the theory of elasticity, in aero- and hydromechanics, in electro- and magnetostatics, etc. This theorem was formulated by B. Riemann (1851) for the more general case of simply-connected and, generally speaking, non-single sheeted domains over the complex plane. Instead of using the normalizing conditions "$f(a)= b, \mathop{\rm arg} f^\prime(a)=\alpha$" of the conformal mapping $w = f( z)$, which guarantee its uniqueness, Riemann used for the same purpose the conditions "$f(a)= b, f(\zeta)=\omega$" , where $a \in G _ {1}$, $b \in G _ {2}$ and $\zeta$ and $\omega$ are points of the boundaries of $G _ {1}$ and $G _ {2}$, respectively, given in advance. The last conditions are not always correct, given the contemporary definition of a simply-connected domain. In proving his theorem, Riemann drew to a considerable degree on concepts of physics, which also convinced him of the importance of this theorem for applications. D. Hilbert made Riemann's proof mathematically precise by substantiating the so-called Dirichlet principle, which was used by Riemann in his proof.

#### References

 [1] B. Riemann, "Gesammelte mathematischen Abhandlungen" , Dover, reprint (1953) [2] I.I. [I.I. Privalov] Priwalow, "Einführung in die Funktionentheorie" , 1–3 , Teubner (1958–1959) (Translated from Russian) MR0342680 MR0264037 MR0264036 MR0264038 MR0123686 MR0123685 MR0098843 Zbl 0177.33401 Zbl 0141.26003 Zbl 0141.26002 Zbl 0082.28802 [3] G.M. Goluzin, "Geometric theory of functions of a complex variable" , Transl. Math. Monogr. , 26 , Amer. Math. Soc. (1969) (Translated from Russian) MR0247039 Zbl 0183.07502

This theorem is also called the Riemann mapping theorem.

#### References

 [a1] Z. Nehari, "Conformal mapping" , Dover, reprint (1975) MR0377031 Zbl 0071.07301 Zbl 0052.08201 Zbl 0048.31503 Zbl 0041.41201

## Riemann's theorem on the rearrangement of terms of a series

If a series in which the terms are real numbers converges but does not converge absolutely, then for any number $A$ there is a rearrangement of the terms of this series such that the sum of the series obtained will be equal to $A$. Furthermore, there is a rearrangement of the terms of the series such that its sum will be equal to one of the previously given signed infinities $+ \infty$ or $- \infty$, and also such that its sum will not be equal either to $+ \infty$ or to $- \infty$, but the sequences of its partial sums have given liminf $\lambda$ and limsup $\mu$, with $- \infty \leq \lambda < \mu \leq \infty$( see Series).

L.D. Kudryavtsev

#### References

 [a1] K. Knopp, "Theorie und Anwendung der unendlichen Reihen" , Springer (1964) (English translation: Blackie, 1951 & Dover, reprint, 1990) MR0028430 Zbl 0124.28302 [a2] W. Rudin, "Principles of mathematical analysis" , McGraw-Hill (1976) pp. 75–78 MR0385023 Zbl 0346.26002