# Lobachevskii function

The angle of parallelism in Lobachevskii geometry is a function that expresses the angle $ \alpha $
between the line $ u _ {1} $(
or $ u _ {2} $)
(see Fig.) and the segment $ OA $
perpendicular to a line $ a $
parallel to $ u _ {1} $(
or $ u _ {2} $)
in terms of the length $ l $
of the segment $ OA $:

$$ \alpha = \Pi ( l) = 2 { \mathop{\rm arc} \mathop{\rm tan} } e ^ {- l / R } , $$

where $ R $ is a positive constant that corresponds to the scale of measurement of distances.

Figure: l060020a

The Lobachevskii function is a continuous monotone decreasing function with values between $ \pi /2 $ and 0:

$$ \lim\limits _ {l \rightarrow 0 } \Pi ( l) = \frac \pi {2} ,\ \lim\limits _ { l \rightarrow \infty } \Pi ( l) = 0. $$

It was introduced by N.I. Lobachevskii in 1826.

## Contents

#### References

[1] | V.F. Kagan, "Foundations of geometry" , 1 , Moscow-Leningrad (1949) (In Russian) |

[2] | N.V. Efimov, "Höhere Geometrie" , Deutsch. Verlag Wissenschaft. (1960) (Translated from Russian) |

The special function (cf. Special functions) defined for real $ x $ by

$$ L ( x) = - \int\limits _ { 0 } ^ { x } \mathop{\rm ln} \cos t dt . $$

The Lobachevskii function can be represented as a series

$$ L ( x) = x \mathop{\rm ln} 2 - \frac{1}{2} \sum _ { k= } 1 ^ \infty (- 1) ^ {k-} 1 \frac{\sin 2kx }{k ^ {2} } . $$

The main relations are:

$$ L ( - x ) = - L ( x) ,\ - \frac \pi {2} \leq x \leq \frac \pi {2} , $$

$$ L ( \pi - x ) = \pi \mathop{\rm ln} 2 - L ( x) , $$

$$ L ( \pi + x ) = \pi \mathop{\rm ln} 2 + L ( x) . $$

It was introduced by N.I. Lobachevskii in 1829.

#### References

[1] | I.M. Ryzhik, I.S. Gradshtein, "Tables of integrals, series, and products" , Acad. Press (1980) (Translated from Russian) |

#### Comments

For the Lobachevskii function in the sense of 1) (i.e. the angle of parallelism) see also [a1]–[a4].

For Lobachevskii's function as defined in 2) see also [a5].

#### References

[a1] | M. Greenberg, "Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries" , Freeman (1974) |

[a2] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Parallel lines" Canad. Math. Bull. , 21 (1978) pp. 385–397 |

[a3] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Non-Euclidean geometry" , Univ. Toronto Press (1957) |

[a4] | R. Bonola, "Non-Euclidean geometry" , Dover, reprint (1955) (Translated from Italian) |

[a5] | H.S.M. Coxeter, "Twelve geometric esays" , Carbondale (1968) pp. Chapt. 1 |

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Lobachevskii function.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Lobachevskii_function&oldid=47674