# Fuchsian equation

equation of Fuchsian class

A linear homogeneous ordinary differential equation in the complex domain,

$$\tag{1 } w ^ {(} n) + p _ {1} ( z) w ^ {( n - 1) } + \dots + p _ {n} ( z) w = 0 ,$$

with analytic coefficients, all singular points of which on the Riemann sphere are regular singular points (cf. Regular singular point). Equation (1) belongs to the Fuchsian class if and only if its coefficients have the form

$$p _ {j} ( z) = \ \prod _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } ( z - z _ {m} ) ^ {-} j q _ {j} ( z),$$

where $z _ {1} \dots z _ {k}$ are distinct points and $q _ {j} ( z)$ is a polynomial of degree $\leq j ( k - 1)$. A system $w ^ \prime = A ( z) w$ of $n$ equations belongs to the Fuchsian class if it has the form

$$\tag{2 } \frac{dw }{dz } = \ \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \frac{A _ {m} }{z - z _ {m} } w,$$

where $z _ {1} \dots z _ {k}$ are distinct points and the $A _ {m} \neq 0$ are constant $( n \times n)$- dimensional matrices. The points $z _ {1} \dots z _ {k} , \infty$ are singular for the equation (1) and the system (2). Fuchs' identity holds for (1):

$$\sum _ {j = 1 } ^ { n } \left ( \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \rho _ {j} ^ {m} + \rho _ {j} ^ \infty \right ) = ( k - 1) \frac{n ( n - 1) }{2} ,$$

where $\rho _ {1} ^ {m} \dots \rho _ {n} ^ {m}$ are the characteristic exponents at $z _ {m}$, and $\rho _ {1} ^ \infty \dots \rho _ {n} ^ \infty$ those at $\infty$( cf. Characteristic exponent). Fuchsian equations (and systems) are also called regular equations (systems). This class of equations and systems was introduced by J.L. Fuchs .

Let $D$ be the Riemann sphere with punctures at the points $z _ {1} \dots z _ {k} , \infty$. Every non-trivial solution of (1) (respectively, every component of a solution of (2)) is an analytic function in $D$. In general, this function is infinite-valued, and all the singular points of (1) (or (2)) are branch points of it of infinite order.

A second-order Fuchsian equation with singular points $z _ {1} \dots z _ {k} , \infty$ has the form

$$\tag{3 } w ^ {\prime\prime} + \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \frac{1 - ( \rho _ {1} ^ {m} + \rho _ {2} ^ {m} ) }{z - z _ {m} } w ^ \prime +$$

$$+ \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \left [ \frac{\rho _ {1} ^ {m} \rho _ {2} ^ {m} \prod _ {j = 1 } ^ { k } {} ^ \prime ( z _ {m} - z _ {j} ) }{z - z _ {m} } + Q _ {k - 2 } ( z) \right ] { \frac{w}{\prod _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } ( z - z _ {m} ) } } = 0,$$

where $Q _ {k - 2 } ( z)$ is a polynomial of degree $k - 2$. The transformation $w = ( z - z _ {m} ) ^ {l} w$ takes a Fuchsian equation to a Fuchsian equation, with

$$( \rho _ {1} ^ {m} , \rho _ {2} ^ {m} ) \rightarrow \ ( \rho _ {1} ^ {m} - l, \rho _ {2} ^ {m} - l),$$

$$( \rho _ {1} ^ \infty , \rho _ {2} ^ \infty ) \rightarrow \ ( \rho _ {1} ^ \infty + l, \rho _ {2} ^ \infty + l),$$

and the characteristic exponents at the other singular points are unchanged. By means of such transformations, equation (3) can be reduced to the form

$$w ^ {\prime\prime} + \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \frac{1 - ( \rho _ {2} ^ {m} + \rho _ {1} ^ {m} ) }{z - z _ {m} } w ^ \prime +$$

$$+ ( \overline \rho \; {} _ {1} ^ \infty \overline \rho \; {} _ {2} ^ \infty z ^ {n - 2 } + d _ {1} z ^ {n - 3 } + \dots + d _ {n - 2 } ) { \frac{w}{\prod _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } ( z - z _ {m} ) } } = 0,$$

$$\overline \rho \; {} _ {j} ^ \infty = \rho _ {j} ^ \infty + \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \rho _ {j} ^ {m} .$$

A second-order Fuchsian equation with $N$ singular points is completely determined by specifying the values of the characteristic exponents at these points if and only if $N < 4$. Using a Möbius transformation the equation can be reduced to the form: a) $N = 1$, $\widetilde{w} {} ^ {\prime\prime} = 0$; b) $N = 2$, $\zeta ^ {2} \widetilde{w} {} ^ {\prime\prime} + a \zeta \widetilde{w} {} ^ {\prime\prime} + b \widetilde{w} = 0$( the Euler equation); c) $N = 3$— the Papperitz equation (or Riemann equation).

A matrix Fuchsian equation has the form

$$\tag{4 } \frac{dW }{dz } = \ \sum _ {m = 1 } ^ { k } \frac{W U _ {m} }{z - z _ {m} } ,$$

where $z _ {1} \dots z _ {k}$ are distinct points, $W$ is an $( n \times n)$- dimensional matrix function, and the $U _ {m} \neq 0$ are constant matrices. The matrix $U _ {m}$ is called a differential substitution at $z _ {m}$. Let $\gamma$ be a closed curve that starts at a non-singular point $b$, is positively oriented and contains only the singular point $z _ {m}$ inside it. If $W ( z)$ is a solution of (4) that is holomorphic at $b$, then under analytic continuation along $\gamma$,

$$\tag{5 } W \rightarrow V _ {m} W,$$

where $V _ {m}$ is a constant matrix, called an integral substitution at $z _ {m}$. H. Poincaré (see ) posed the so-called first regular Poincaré problem for a system of the form (4). It consists of the following three problems:

A) to represent the solution $W ( z)$ in its whole domain of existence;

B) to construct the integral substitutions at the points $z _ {m}$;

C) to give an analytic characterization of the singularities of the solutions.

In particular, solving problem B) enables one to construct the monodromy group of (4). A solution of the Poincaré problem was obtained by I.A. Lappo-Danilevskii . Let $L _ {b} ( z _ {j _ {1} } \dots z _ {j _ \nu } \mid z)$, $j _ {m} \in \{ 1 \dots k \}$, $\nu = 1, 2 \dots$ be the hyperlogarithms:

$$L _ {b} ( z _ {m} \mid z) = \ \int\limits _ { b } ^ { z } \frac{dz }{z - z _ {m} } ,\ \$$

$$L _ {b} ( z _ {j _ {1} } \dots z _ {j _ \nu } \mid z) = \int\limits _ { b } ^ { z } \frac{L _ {b} ( z _ {j _ {1} } \dots z _ {j _ {\nu - 1 } } \mid z) }{z - z _ {j _ \nu } } dz,$$

let $W _ {0} ( z)$ be the element (germ) at $b$ of a solution of (4), normalized by the condition $W _ {0} ( b) = I$, and let $W ( z)$ be the analytic function in $D$ generated by this element. Then $W ( z)$ is an entire function of the matrices $U _ {1} \dots U _ {k}$ and has a series expansion

$$W ( z) = I + \sum _ {\nu = 1 } ^ \infty \ \sum _ {j _ {1} \dots j _ \nu } ^ { {( } 1 \dots k) } U _ {j _ {1} } \dots U _ {j _ \nu } L _ {b} ( z _ {j _ {1} } \dots z _ {j _ \nu } \mid z),$$

which converges uniformly in $z$ on every compact set $K \subset D$. The integral substitution $V _ {m}$ at $z _ {m}$ corresponding to the solution $W ( z)$ is an entire function of $U _ {1} \dots U _ {k}$ and has a series expansion

$$V _ {m} = I + \sum _ {\nu = 1 } ^ \infty \ \sum _ {j _ {1} \dots j _ \nu } ^ { {( } 1 \dots k) } U _ {j _ {1} } \dots U _ {j _ \nu } P _ {j} ( z _ {j _ {1} } \dots z _ {j _ \nu } \mid b),$$

where $P _ {j}$ can be expressed in terms of hyperlogarithms (see , ).

Formulas that give a solution to problem C) have also been obtained (see ).

How to Cite This Entry:
Fuchsian equation. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Fuchsian_equation&oldid=47004
This article was adapted from an original article by M.V. Fedoryuk (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article