# Smooth morphism

of schemes

The concept of a family of non-singular algebraic varieties (cf. Algebraic variety) generalized to the case of schemes. In the classical case of a morphism of complex algebraic varieties this concept reduces to the concept of a regular mapping (a submersion) of complex manifolds. A finitely-represented (local) morphism of schemes $f: X \rightarrow Y$ is called a smooth morphism if $f$ is a flat morphism and if for any point $y \in Y$ the fibre $f ^ { - 1 } ( y)$ is a smooth scheme (over the field $k( y)$). A scheme $X$ is called a smooth scheme over a scheme $Y$, or a smooth $Y$- scheme, if the structure morphism $f: X \rightarrow Y$ is a smooth morphism.

An example of a smooth $Y$- scheme is the affine space $A _ {Y} ^ {n}$. A special case of the concept of a smooth morphism is that of an étale morphism. Conversely, any smooth morphism $f: X \rightarrow Y$ can be locally factored with respect to $X$ into a composition of an étale morphism $X \rightarrow A _ {Y} ^ {n}$ and a projection $A _ {Y} ^ {n} \rightarrow Y$.

A composite of smooth morphisms is again a smooth morphism; this is also true for any base change. A smooth morphism is distinguished by its differential property: A flat finitely-represented morphism $f: X \rightarrow Y$ is a smooth morphism if and only if the sheaf of relative differentials is a locally free sheaf of rank $\mathop{\rm dim} _ {x} f$ at a point $x$.

The concept of a smooth morphism is analogous to the concept of a Serre fibration in topology. E.g., a smooth morphism of complex algebraic varieties is a locally trivial differentiable fibration. In the general case the following analogue of the covering homotopy axiom is valid: For any affine scheme $Y ^ \prime$, any closed subscheme $Y _ {0} ^ \prime$ of it which is definable by a nilpotent ideal and any morphism $Y ^ \prime \rightarrow Y$, the canonical mapping $\mathop{\rm Hom} _ {Y} ( Y ^ \prime , X) \rightarrow \mathop{\rm Hom} _ {Y} ( Y _ {0} ^ \prime , X)$ is surjective.

If $f: X \rightarrow Y$ is a smooth morphism and if the local ring ${\mathcal O} _ {Y,y}$ at the point $y \in Y$ is regular (respectively, normal or reduced), then the local ring ${\mathcal O} _ {X,x}$ of any point $x \in X$ with $f( x) = y$ will also have this property.

#### References

 [1] A. Grothendieck, "Eléments de géometrie algébrique IV. Etude locale des schémas et des morphismes des schémas" Publ. Math. IHES : 32 (1967) MR0238860 Zbl 0144.19904 Zbl 0135.39701 Zbl 0136.15901 [2] A. Grothendieck (ed.) et al. (ed.) , Revêtements étales et groupe fondamental. SGA 1 , Lect. notes in math. , 224 , Springer (1971) MR0354651 Zbl 1039.14001 [a1] R. Hartshorne, "Algebraic geometry" , Springer (1977) pp. Sect. IV.2 MR0463157 Zbl 0367.14001
How to Cite This Entry:
Smooth morphism. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Smooth_morphism&oldid=55735
This article was adapted from an original article by V.I. DanilovI.V. Dolgachev (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article