# One-parameter subgroup

of a Lie group $G$ over a normed field $K$

An analytic homomorphism of the additive group of the field $K$ into $G$, that is, an analytic mapping $\alpha : K \rightarrow G$ such that

$$\alpha ( s + t) = \alpha ( s) \alpha ( t),\ s, t \in K.$$

The image of this homomorphism, which is a subgroup of $G$, is also called a one-parameter subgroup. If $K = \mathbf R$, then the continuity of the homomorphism $\alpha : K \rightarrow G$ implies that it is analytic. If $K = \mathbf R$ or $\mathbf C$, then for any tangent vector $X \in T _ {e} G$ to $G$ at the point $e$ there exists a unique one-parameter subgroup $\alpha : K \rightarrow G$ having $X$ as its tangent vector at the point $t = 0$. Here $\alpha ( t) = \mathop{\rm exp} tX$, $t \in K$, where $\mathop{\rm exp} : T _ {e} G \rightarrow G$ is the exponential mapping. In particular, any one-parameter subgroup of the general linear group $G = \mathop{\rm GL} ( n, K)$ has the form

$$\alpha ( t) = \mathop{\rm exp} tX = \ \sum _ {n = 0 } ^ \infty { \frac{1}{n! } } t ^ {n} X ^ {n} .$$

If $G$ is a real Lie group endowed with a two-sidedly invariant pseudo-Riemannian metric or affine connection, then the one-parameter subgroups of $G$ are the geodesics passing through the identity $e$.

How to Cite This Entry:
One-parameter subgroup. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=One-parameter_subgroup&oldid=48042
This article was adapted from an original article by r group','../u/u095350.htm','Unitary transformation','../u/u095590.htm','Vector bundle, analytic','../v/v096400.htm')" style="background-color:yellow;">A.L. Onishchik (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article