# Normal bundle

of a submanifold

The vector bundle consisting of tangent vectors to the ambient manifold that are normal to the submanifold. If $X$ is a Riemannian manifold, $Y$ is an (immersed) submanifold of it, $T _ {X}$ and $T _ {Y}$ are the tangent bundles over $X$ and $Y$( cf. Tangent bundle), then the normal bundle $N _ {Y/X}$ of $Y$ is the subbundle in $T _ {X} \mid _ {Y}$ consisting of the vectors $u \in T _ {X,y }$, $y \in Y$, that are orthogonal to $T _ {Y,y}$.

With the help of normal bundles one constructs, for example, tubular neighbourhoods of submanifolds (cf. Tubular neighbourhood). The normal bundle over $Y$, regarded up to equivalence, does not depend on the choice of the Riemannian metric on $X$, since it can be defined without recourse to the metric as the quotient bundle $T _ {X} \mid _ {Y} / T _ {Y}$ of the tangent bundle $T _ {X}$ restricted to $Y$ by the vector bundle $T _ {Y}$. Somewhat more general is the construction of the normal bundle of an arbitrary immersion (cf. Immersion of a manifold) $f: Y \rightarrow X$ of differentiable manifolds:

$$N _ {Y/X} = \ f ^ { * } T _ {X} / T _ {Y} .$$

Similarly one defines the normal bundle $N _ {Y/X}$ of a non-singular algebraic subvariety $Y$ in a non-singular algebraic variety $\overline{X}\;$ or that of an analytic submanifold $Y$ in an analytic manifold $X$; it is an algebraic (or analytic) vector bundle over $Y$ of rank $\mathop{\rm codim} Y$. In particular, if $\mathop{\rm codim} Y = 1$, then $N _ {Y/X}$ is isomorphic to the restriction to $Y$ of the bundle over $X$ that determines the divisor $Y$.

When $Y$ is an analytic subspace of an analytic space $( X, {\mathcal O} _ {X} )$, the normal bundle of $Y$ is sometimes defined as the analytic family of vector spaces $N _ {Y/X} \rightarrow Y$ dual to the conormal sheaf $N _ {Y/X} ^ {*}$( see Normal sheaf). For applications of normal bundles to the problem of contractibility of submanifolds see Exceptional analytic set; Exceptional subvariety.

#### References

 [1] A.L. Onishchik, "Pseudoconvexity in the theory of complex spaces" J. Soviet Math. , 14 : 3 (1980) pp. 1363–1406 Itogi Nauk. i Tekhn. Algebra. Topol. Geom. , 15 (1977) pp. 93–156 Zbl 0449.32020 [2] J.W. Milnor, J.D. Stasheff, "Characteristic classes" , Princeton Univ. Press (1974) MR0440554 Zbl 0298.57008 [3] V.A. Rokhlin, D.B. Fuks, "Beginner's course in topology. Geometric chapters" , Springer (1984) (Translated from Russian) MR759162 [4] M.W. Hirsch, "Differential topology" , Springer (1976) MR0448362 Zbl 0356.57001 [5] I.R. Shafarevich, "Basic algebraic geometry" , Springer (1977) (Translated from Russian) MR0447223 Zbl 0362.14001 [a1] N.E. Steenrod, "The topology of fibre bundles" , Princeton Univ. Press (1951) MR0039258 Zbl 0054.07103
How to Cite This Entry:
Normal bundle. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Normal_bundle&oldid=53836
This article was adapted from an original article by A.L. Onishchik (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article