Einstein equations

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of the gravitational field

Fundamental equations in the general theory of relativity. They connect the metric tensor of the space-time continuum, which describes the gravitational field, and the physical characteristics of different forms of matter, described by means of the energy-momentum tensor:


Here $R_{ik}$ is the Ricci tensor, which can be expressed in terms of the metric tensor $g_{ik}$, $R=R_i^i$, $T_{ik}$ is the energy-momentum tensor, $c$ is the speed of light in vacuum, and $G$ is the gravitational constant.


[1] L.D. Landau, E.M. Lifshitz, "The classical theory of fields" , Addison-Wesley (1962) (Translated from Russian)
[a1] S. Weinberg, "Gravitation and cosmology" , Wiley (1972) pp. Chapt. 7
[a2] R.M. Wald, "General relativity" , Univ. Chicago Press (1984) pp. Chapt. 4
How to Cite This Entry:
Einstein equations. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL:
This article was adapted from an original article by D.D. Sokolov (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article