# Buchsbaum ring

The notion of a Buchsbaum ring (and module) is a generalization of that of a Cohen–Macaulay ring (respectively, module). Let $A$ denote a Noetherian local ring (cf. also Noetherian ring) with maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$ and $d = \operatorname { dim } A$. Let $M$ be a finitely-generated $A$-module with $\dim_AM = s$. Then $M$ is called a Buchsbaum module if the difference

\begin{equation*} \operatorname{l} _ { A } ( M / \mathfrak{q}M ) - e _ { \mathfrak{q} } ^ { 0 } ( M ) \end{equation*}

is independent of the choice of a parameter ideal $\mathfrak { q } = ( a _ { 1 } , \ldots , a _ { s } )$ of $M$, where $a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { s }$ is a system of parameters of $M$ and ${\bf l} _ { A } ( M / \text{q}M )$ (respectively, $e _ { \mathfrak{q} } ^ { 0 } ( M )$) denotes the length of the $A$-module $M / \mathfrak { q } M$ (respectively, the multiplicity of $M$ with respect to $\text{q}$). When this is the case, the difference

\begin{equation*} I ( M ) = {\bf l } _ { A } ( M / \mathfrak { q } M ) - e _ { \mathfrak { q } } ^ { 0 } ( M ) \end{equation*}

is called the Buchsbaum invariant of $M$. The $A$-module $M$ is a Cohen–Macaulay module if and only if $\text{l} _ { A } ( M / \text{q}M ) = e _ { \text{q} } ^ { 0 } ( M )$ for some (and hence for any) parameter ideal $\text{q}$ of $M$, so that $M$ is a Cohen–Macaulay $A$-module if and only if $M$ is a Buchsbaum $A$-module with $I ( M ) = 0$. The ring $A$ is said to be a Buchsbaum ring if $A$ is a Buchsbaum module over itself. If $A$ is a Buchsbaum ring, then $A _ { \mathfrak{p} }$ is a Cohen–Macaulay ring with $\operatorname { dim } A _ { \mathfrak { p } } = \operatorname { dim } A - \operatorname { dim } A / \mathfrak { p }$ for every $\mathfrak{p} \in \operatorname { Spec } A \backslash \{ \mathfrak{m} \}$.

A typical example of Buchsbaum rings is as follows. Let

\begin{equation*} A = B / ( X _ { 1 } , \dots , X _ { d } ) \bigcap ( Y _ { 1 } , \dots , Y _ { d } ), \end{equation*}

where $B = k [ [ X _ { 1 } , \dots , X _ { d } , Y _ { 1 } , \dots , Y _ { d } ]]$, with $d \geq 1$, denotes the formal power series ring in $2 d$ variables over a field $k$. Then $A$ is a Buchsbaum ring with $\operatorname { dim } A = d$ and $I ( A ) = d - 1$.

A, not necessarily local, Noetherian ring $R$ is said to be a Buchsbaum ring if the local rings $R _ { \mathfrak{p} }$ are Buchsbaum for all $\mathfrak { p } \in \operatorname { Spec } R$.

The theory of Buchsbaum rings and modules dates back to a question raised in 1965 by D.A. Buchsbaum [a3]. He asked whether the difference $ \operatorname{l} _ { A } ( A / \mathfrak { q } ) - e _ { \mathfrak { q } } ^ { 0 } ( A )$, with $\text{q}$ a parameter ideal, is an invariant for any Noetherian local ring $A$. This is, however, not the case and a counterexample was given in [a28]. Thereafter, in 1973 J. Stückrad and W. Vogel published the classic paper [a29], from which the history of Buchsbaum rings and modules started. In [a29] they gave a characterization of Buchsbaum rings in terms of the following property of systems of parameters: A $d$-dimensional Noetherian local ring $A$ with maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$ is Buchsbaum if and only if every system $a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { d }$ of parameters for $A$ forms a weak $A$-sequence, that is, the equality

\begin{equation*} ( a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { i - 1 } ) : a _ { i } = ( a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { i - 1 } ) : \mathfrak{m} \end{equation*}

holds for all $1 \leq i \leq d$. Therefore, systems $a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { d }$ of parameters in a Buchsbaum local ring need not be regular sequences, but the differences

\begin{equation*} [ ( a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { i - 1 } ) : a _ { i } ] / ( a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { i - 1 } ) ,\; 1 \leq i \leq d, \end{equation*}

are very small and only finite-dimensional vector spaces over the residue class field $A /_{ \mathfrak{m}}$ of $A$. Weak sequences are closely related to $d$-sequences introduced by C. Huneke [a21]. Actually, $A$ is a Buchsbaum ring if and only if every system $a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { d }$ of parameters for $A$ forms a $d$-sequence, that is, the equality

\begin{equation*} ( a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { i - 1 } ) : a _ { i } a _ { j } = ( a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { i - 1 } ) : a _ { j } \end{equation*}

holds for all $1 \leq i \leq j \leq d$.

One of the fundamental results on Buchsbaum rings and modules is the surjectivity criterion. Let

\begin{equation*} H _ { \mathfrak{m} } ^ { i } ( M ) = \operatorname { lim } _ { n \rightarrow \infty } \operatorname { Ext } _ { A } ^ { i } ( A / \mathfrak { m } ^ { n } , M ) \quad ( i \in \mathbf{Z} ) \end{equation*}

denote the $i$th local cohomology of $M$ with respect to the maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$. If $M$ is a Buchsbaum $A$-module, then $\mathfrak { m } \cdot H _ { \mathfrak { m } } ^ { i } ( M ) = ( 0 )$ for all $i \neq s$ and the equality

\begin{equation*} \operatorname {I} ( M ) = \sum _ { i = 0 } ^ { s - 1 } \left( \begin{array} { c } { s - 1 } \\ { i } \end{array} \right) .\operatorname { l}_ { A } ( H _ {\frak m } ^ { i } ( M ) ) \end{equation*}

holds, where $s = \operatorname { dim } _ { A } M$.

Unfortunately, the vanishing does not characterize Buchsbaum modules. Modules $M$ with $\mathfrak { m } \cdot H _ { \mathfrak { m } } ^ { i } ( M ) = ( 0 )$ for all $i \neq \operatorname { dim } _ { A } M$ are called quasi-Buchsbaum and constitute a class which is strictly larger than that of Buchsbaum modules. However, if the canonical homomorphism

\begin{equation*} \varphi _ { M } ^ { i } : \operatorname { Ext } _ { A } ^ { i } ( A / \mathfrak { m } , M ) \rightarrow H _ {\frak m } ^ { i } ( M ) = \operatorname { lim } _ { n \rightarrow \infty } \operatorname { Ext } _ { A } ^ { i } ( A / \mathfrak { m } ^ { n } , M ) \end{equation*}

is surjective for all $i \neq \operatorname { dim } _ { A } M$, then $M$ is a Buchsbaum $A$-module. The converse is also true if the base ring $A$ is regular (cf. also Regular ring (in commutative algebra)).

After the establishment of the surjectivity criterion, by Stückrad and Vogel [a30] in 1978, the development of the theory became rather rapid. The ubiquity of Buchsbaum normal local rings was established by S. Goto [a6] as an application of the Evans–Griffith construction [a5]. Namely, let $d \geq 1$ and $\{ h _ { i } \} _ { 0 \leq i \leq d - 1 }$ be integers. Then there exists a Buchsbaum local ring $A$ with $\operatorname { dim } A = d$ and $\operatorname{l} _ { A } ( H _ { \text{m} } ^ { i } ( A ) ) = h _ { i }$ for $0 \leq i \leq d - 1$. If $h _ { 0 } = 0$ (respectively, $d \geq 2$ and $h _ { 0 } = h _ { 1 } = 0$), one may choose the ring $A$ so that $A$ is an integral domain (respectively, a normal ring). See [a1] for progress in the research about the ubiquity of Buchsbaum homogeneous integral domains. Besides, Buchsbaum local rings of multiplicity $2$ have been classified [a8]. Also, certain famous isolated singularities are Buchsbaum (cf. [a23]).

The theory of Buchsbaum rings and modules is closely related to that of Cohen–Macaulayness in blowing-ups. Let $I$ be an ideal of positive height in a Noetherian local ring $A$. Let $R ( I ) = \oplus _ { n \geq 0 } I ^ { n }$ and call it the Rees algebra of $I$. Then the canonical morphism $\operatorname{Proj} R ( I ) \rightarrow \operatorname{Spec} A$ is the blowing-up of $A$ with centre $I$ (cf. also Blow-up algebra). If the ring $R ( I )$ is Cohen–Macaulay, then the scheme naturally is locally Cohen–Macaulay. The problem when the Rees algebra $R ( I )$ is Cohen–Macaulay has been intensively studied from the 1980s onwards ([a18], [a38], [a16], [a39], [a17]).

The ring $R ( I )$ is Cohen–Macaulay if the ideal $I$ is generated by a regular sequence and if the base ring $A$ is Cohen–Macaulay [a2]. However, the converse is not true even for parameter ideals $I$. Actually, $A$ is a Buchsbaum ring if and only if the Rees algebra $R ( \mathfrak { q } )$ is a Cohen–Macaulay ring for every parameter ideal $\text{q}$ in $A$, provided that $A$ is an integral domain with $\operatorname { dim } A = 2$. This insightful result of Y. Shimoda [a35] in 1979 opened the door towards a further development of the theory. Firstly, Goto and Shimoda [a19] showed that a Noetherian local ring $A$ is a Buchsbaum ring with $H _ { \mathfrak{m} } ^ { i } ( A ) = ( 0 )$ ($i \neq 1 , \operatorname { dim } A$) if and only if the Rees algebra $R ( \mathfrak { q } )$ is a Cohen–Macaulay ring for every parameter ideal $\text{q}$ in $A$. When this is the case, the Rees algebras $R ( \mathfrak{q} ^ { n } )$ are also Cohen–Macaulay for all $n \geq 1$. In 1981, Buchsbaum rings were characterized in terms of the blowing-ups of parameter ideals. Let $A$ be a Noetherian local ring with maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$ and $d = \operatorname { dim } A \geq 1$. Then $A / H _ { \mathfrak{m} } ^ { 0 } ( A )$ is a Buchsbaum ring if and only if the scheme is locally Cohen–Macaulay for every parameter ideal $\text{q}$ in $A$ [a7]. Subsequently, Goto [a10] proved that the associated graded rings $G ( \mathfrak { q } ) = \oplus _ { n \geq 0} \mathfrak { q } ^ { n } / \mathfrak { q } ^ { n + 1 }$ of parameter ideals $\text{q}$ in a Buchsbaum local ring are always Buchsbaum. In addition, Stückrad showed that $R ( \mathfrak { q } )$ is a Buchsbaum ring for every parameter ideal $\text{q}$ in a Buchsbaum local ring [a36]. The systems of parameters in Buchsbaum local rings behave very well and enjoy the monomial property [a10].

Buchsbaum rings are yet (2000) the only non-trivial case for which the monomial conjecture, raised by M. Hochster, has been solved affirmatively (except for the equi-characteristic case). See [a31] for these results, together with geometric applications and concrete examples. See [a31] for researches on the Buchsbaum property in affine semi-group rings and Stanley–Reisner rings of simplicial complexes.

Let $M$ be a Buchsbaum module over a Noetherian local ring $A$. Then $M$ is said to be maximal if $\operatorname{dim}_{A} M = \operatorname{dim} A $. Noetherian local rings possessing only finitely many isomorphism classes of indecomposable maximal Buchsbaum modules are said to have finite Buchsbaum-representation type. Buchsbaum representation theory was studied by Goto and K. Nishida [a15], [a11], [a13], and the Cohen–Macaulay local rings $A$ of finite Buchsbaum-representation type have been classified under certain mild conditions. If $\operatorname { dim } A \geq 2$, then $A$ must be regular [a15]. The situation is a little more complicated if $\operatorname { dim } A = 1$ [a13]. In [a11] (not necessarily Cohen–Macaulay) surface singularities of finite Buchsbaum-representation type are classified.

Suppose that $A$ is a regular local ring with $\operatorname { dim } A = d$ and let $M$ be a maximal Buchsbaum $A$-module. Then $M _ { \mathfrak{p} }$ is a free $A _ { \mathfrak{p} }$-module for all $\mathfrak{p} \in \operatorname { Spec } A \backslash \{ \mathfrak{m} \}$, so that the $A$-module $M$ defines a vector bundle on the punctured spectrum $\operatorname {Spec} A \backslash \{ \mathfrak{m} \}$ of $A$. Thanks to the surjectivity criterion, one can prove the structure theorem of maximal Buchsbaum modules over regular local rings: Every maximal Buchsbaum $A$-module $M$ has the form

\begin{equation*} M \cong \bigoplus _ { i = 0 } ^ { d } E _ { i } ^ { h _ { i } }, \end{equation*}

where $E_i$ denotes the $i$th syzygy module of the residue class field $A /_{ \mathfrak{m}}$ of $A$, $h _ { i } = \operatorname { l } _ { A } ( H _ { \mathfrak{m} } ^ { i } ( M ) )$ ($0 \leq i \leq d - 1$), and $h _ { d } = \operatorname { rank } _ { A } M - \sum _ { i = 1 } ^ { d - 1 } \left( \begin{array} { c } { d - 1 } \\ { i - 1 } \end{array} \right) h _ { i }$, if $A$ is a regular local ring ([a4], [a12]). This result has been generalized by Y. Yoshino [a40] and T. Kawasaki [a24]. They showed a similar decomposition theorem of a special kind of maximal Buchsbaum modules over Gorenstein local rings; see [a32] for the characterization of Buchsbaum rings and modules in terms of dualizing complexes. (It should be noted here that the main result in [a32] contains a serious mistake, which has been repaired in [a40].)

A local ring $A$ satisfying the condition that all the local cohomology modules $H _ { \mathfrak{m} } ^ { i } ( A )$ ($i \neq \operatorname { dim } A$) are finitely generated is said to be an FLC ring (or a generalized Cohen–Macaulay ring). The class of FLC rings includes Buchsbaum rings as typical examples. In fact, a Noetherian local ring $A$ is FLC if and only if it contains at least one system $a _ { 1 } , \dots , a _ { d }$ ($d = \operatorname { dim } A$) of parameters such that the sequence $\alpha _ { 1 } ^ { n _ { 1 } } , \dots , \alpha _ { d } ^ { n _ { d } }$ forms a $d$-sequence in any order for all integers $n _ { i } \geq 1$. Such a sequence is called an unconditioned strong $d$-sequence (for short, USD-sequence or $d ^ { + }$-sequence); they have been intensively studied [a27], [a37], [a20]. Recently (1999), Kawasaki [a25] used the results in [a20] to establish the arithmetic Cohen–Macaulayfications of Noetherian local rings. Namely, every unmixed local ring $A$ contains an ideal $I$ of positive height with the Cohen–Macaulay Rees algebra $R ( I )$, provided $\operatorname { dim } A \geq 1$ and all the formal fibres of $A$ are Cohen–Macaulay. Hence, the Sharp conjecture [a34] concerning the existence of dualizing complexes is solved affirmatively.

Let $R = \oplus _ { n \geq 0} R _ { n }$ be a Noetherian graded ring with $k = R _ { 0 }$ a field and let $\mathfrak { M } = R _ { + }$. Then $R$ is a Buchsbaum ring if and only if the local ring $R _ {\frak M }$ is Buchsbaum. When this is the case, the local cohomology modules $H _ { \mathfrak{M} } ^ { i } ( R )$ ($i \neq \operatorname { dim } R$) are finite-dimensional vector spaces over the field $k$. The vanishing of certain homogeneous components $[ H _ { \mathfrak{M} } ^ { i } ( R ) ] _ { n }$ of $H _ { \mathfrak{M} } ^ { i } ( R )$ may affect the Buchsbaumness in graded algebras $R$. For example, if there exist integers $\{ t _ { i } \} _ { 0 \leq i \leq d - 1}$ ($d = \operatorname { dim } R$) such that $t _ { i } \leq t_{i + 1} + 1$ for all $0 \leq i \leq d - 1$ and if

\begin{equation*} [ H _ { \mathfrak{M} } ^ { i } ( R ) ] _ { n } = ( 0 ) \end{equation*}

for all $n \neq t_i$ and $0 \leq i \leq d - 1$, then $R$ is a Buchsbaum ring [a9]. Therefore $R$ is a Buchsbaum ring if $H _ { \mathfrak{M} } ^ { i } ( R ) = [ H _ { \mathfrak{M} } ^ { i } ( R ) ] _ { 0 }$ for all $i \neq d$ [a33]. Hence the scheme $X = \operatorname { Proj } R$ is arithmetically Buchsbaum if $X$ is locally Cohen–Macaulay, provided that $R = k [ R _ { 1 }]$ and $R$ is equi-dimensional. See [a22] for the bounds of Castelnuovo–Mumford regularities of Buchsbaum schemes $X = \operatorname { Proj } R$.

Researches of the Buchsbaumness in Rees algebras recently (1999) started again, although the progress remains tardy (possibly because of the lack of characterizations of Trung–Ikeda type [a38] for Buchsbaumness). In [a14] the Buchsbaumness in Rees algebras $R ( I )$ of certain $\mathfrak{m}$-primary ideals $I$ in Cohen–Macaulay local rings is closely studied in connection with the Buchsbaumness in the associated graded rings $G ( I ) = \oplus _ { n \geq 0} I ^ { n } / I ^ { n + 1 }$ and that of the extended Rees algebras $R ^ { \prime } ( I ) = \oplus _ { n \in \bf Z} I^ { n }$. In [a26], [a41], [a42], Buchsbaumness in graded rings associated to certain $\mathfrak{m}$-primary ideals in Buchsbaum local rings is explored. Especially, the Rees algebra $R ( \mathfrak{m} )$ of the maximal ideal $\mathfrak{m}$ in a Buchsbaum local ring $A$ of maximal embedding dimension (that is, a Buchsbaum local ring $A$ for which the equality $v ( A ) = e _ { \mathfrak{m} } ^ { 0 } ( A ) + \operatorname { dim } A + I ( A ) - 1$ holds) is again a Buchsbaum ring [a42].

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Buchsbaum ring.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Buchsbaum_ring&oldid=50621