\( \class{green}{a_{\text c}} \) Unit \( \frac{\text{m}}{\text{s}^2} \)

Acceleration caused by the Coriolis force. Coriolis force occurs only in rotating reference systems (such as on the Earth). It always acts perpendicular to the angular velocity \( \omega \) and linear velocity \( v \).

Angular velocity

\( \class{brown}{\omega} \) Unit \( \frac{1}{\text s} \)

Angular velocity determines how fast the reference frame rotates, e.g. the angular velocity of the earth in units of \( 2 \pi \):\[ \omega ~=~ \frac{2\pi}{24 \, \text{h}} ~=~ 7.27 \cdot 10^{-5} \, \frac{1}{\text s} \]

Velocity

\( \class{red}{v} \) Unit \( \frac{\text{m}}{\text{s}} \)

Linear velocity of a body, relative to the rotating reference frame. For example, it can be the velocity of a bullet fired to the east. Or the velocity of an airplane flying to the north.

Angle

\( \varphi \) Unit \( - \)

This is the angle enclosed by the velocity vector \(\boldsymbol{v}\) and the angular velocity vector \(\boldsymbol{\omega}\). On Earth, this angle corresponds to the latitude.

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