Machine-oriented language

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A programming language that allows one, when compiling programs, to take into account the peculiarities of the systems of commands and representation of information in the object computer. Machine-oriented languages, in contrast to universal problem-oriented languages (cf. Problem-oriented language) that realize a mapping of the set $P$ of input programs into the set $M$ of machine programs, try to map $P$ onto $M$.

The simplest machine-oriented languages are assemblers, which, while completely preserving the structure of the machine programs, allow one to use a symbolic notation for commands and memory addresses, as well as to collect programs from a couple of separately-described parts. For additional possibilities concerning substitutions in the text and other simple transformations when compiling the text of programs, one needs macro-assemblers. Machine-oriented languages of a higher level, like universal languages, have a phrase-structure allowing for compound objects and defining operations. This structure also contains additional means for describing elementary objects and basic operations in terms of the machine structure.


[1] G. Struble, "Assembler language programming: the IBM system/360" , Addison-Wesley (1969)
[2] P. Brown, "Macro processors and techniques for portable software" , Wiley (1974)
[3] V.L. Katkov, A.F. Rar, "Programming in Epsilon" , Novosibirsk (1972) (In Russian)


A typical contemporary example of a higher-level programming language which supports access to machine-level features is the language $C$, which is widely used for general programming in a UNIX environment.


[a1] B.W. Kernighan, D.M. Ritchie, "The $C$ programming language" , Prentice-Hall (1978)
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Machine-oriented language. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL:
This article was adapted from an original article by A.P. Ershov (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article