# Lindemann theorem

The exponential function $e^z$ takes transcendental values (cf. Transcendental number) at algebraic points $z\neq0$ (cf. Algebraic number); proved by F. Lindemann in 1882. The following more general assertion, which was stated without proof by Lindemann and was proved by K. Weierstrass in 1885, is known as the Lindemann–Weierstrass theorem.

Let $a_1,\dots,a_m$ be non-zero algebraic numbers and let $\alpha_1,\dots,\alpha_m$ be pairwise distinct algebraic numbers; then

$$a_1e^{\alpha_1}+\dots+a_me^{\alpha_m}\neq0.$$

This assertion is equivalent to the following: If $\beta_1,\dots,\beta_n$ are algebraic numbers, linearly independent over the field of rational numbers, then the numbers $e^{\beta_1},\dots,e^{\beta_n}$ are algebraically independent.

The method of proving Lindemann's theorem is known as the Hermite–Lindemann method. It is a development of Hermite's method by which he proved in 1873 that $e$ is transcendental, and it is based on the application of the Hermite identity to certain specially constructed polynomials.

From Lindemann's theorem one can deduce that $\pi$ is transcendental, that the problem of squaring the circle has no solution, and also that the functions $\sin z$, $\cos z$ and $\tan z$ take transcendental values for algebraic $z\neq0$, and that $\ln z$ takes transcendental values for algebraic $z\neq0,1$.

How to Cite This Entry:
Lindemann theorem. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Lindemann_theorem&oldid=33021
This article was adapted from an original article by A.I. Galochkin (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article