# Hasse invariant

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: Primary: 11Rxx Secondary: 11Sxx [MSN][ZBL]

The Hasse invariant is an arithmetic invariant of various objects.

## Contents

#### Central simple algebras

The Hasse invariant $h(A)$ of a central simple algebra $A$ over a local field $K$ (or over the field $K=\R$ or $\C$) is the image of the class of $A$ under the canonical isomorphism of the Brauer group of $K$ onto the group of all complex roots of unity (or onto the group $\{\pm1\}$ or $\{1\}$). For a cyclic algebra $A$ with generators $a,b$ and defining relations $a^n=x$, $b^n=y$, $ba=\epsilon ab$, where $x,y\in K^*$ and $\epsilon\in K$ is a primitive $n$-th root of unity, the Hasse invariant $h(A)$ is the same as the norm-residue symbol (Hilbert symbol) $(x,y)_n$. In particular, the Hasse invariant of the quaternion algebra is $-1$.

For a central algebra $A$ over a global field $K$ and any valuation $\nu$ of this field the local Hasse invariant $h_\nu(A)$ is defined as the Hasse invariant of the algebra $A\otimes K_\nu$ over the completion $K_\nu$ of $K$ in the topology determined by $\nu$. The local Hasse invariants determine the class of $A$ uniquely. They are related by the following conditions: 1) there are only finitely-many valuations $\nu$ for which $h_\nu(A)\ne 1$; and 2) $\prod_\nu h_\nu(A) = 1$ (the reciprocity law). Apart from these conditions they can assume arbitrary values.

The Hasse invariant was introduced by H. Hasse [Ha], [Ha2].

The Hasse invariant, the Hasse–Minkowski invariant, Hasse's symbol, $\epsilon(f)$, of a non-degenerate quadratic form $f\sim a_1 x_1^2 + \cdots + a_n x_n^2$ over a local field $K$ of characteristic $\ne 2$ (or over the field $K=\R$ or $\C$) is the product $$\prod_{i<j} (a_i,a_j) = \pm 1$$ where $(\ ,\ )$ is the quadratic Hilbert symbol, that is, $(a,b) = 1$ if the quadratic form $ax^2+by^2$ represents 1 in the field $K$ and $(a,b) = -1$ otherwise. The Hasse invariant depends only on the equivalence class of the form $f$, and not on the choice of a diagonal form in this class. Sometimes the Hasse invariant is defined as the product $\prod_{i\le j}(a_i,a_j)$, which differs from the definition above by the factor $(d(f),d(f))$, where $d(f)$ is the discriminant of the form $f$.

In the case of a local field $K$ the number $n$ of variables, the discriminant and the Hasse invariant determine the class of the form $f$. For $n\ge 3$, the invariants $d(f)$ and $\epsilon(f)$ can take arbitrary values independently of each other; for $n=2$ the case $d(f)=-1$, $\epsilon(f) = -1$ is excluded; for $n=1$ one always has $\epsilon(f) = 1$.

When $K=\R$, the Hasse invariant can be expressed in terms of the signature, namely, $$\def\e{\epsilon} \e(f) = (-1)^{s(s-1)/2}$$ where $s$ is the negative index of inertia of the form $f$. When $K=\C$, one has $\e(f)=1$.

For a non-degenerate quadratic form $f$ over a global field $K$ of characteristic $\ne 2$ and any valuation $\nu$ of $K$ the local Hasse invariant $\e_\nu(f)$ is defined as the Hasse invariant of the quadratic form $f$ regarded over the completion $K_\nu$ of $K$ in the topology determined by $\nu$. The number of variables, the discriminant, the local Hasse invariants, and the signatures over the real completions of $K$ determine the class of $f$.

Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a non-degenerate quadratic form in $n$ variables over a global field $K$ of characteristic $\ne 2$ having a given discriminant $d\ne 0$, given the local Hasse invariants $\e_\nu$, and, for real valuations $\nu$, given the negative indices of inertia $s_\nu$, are as follows:

a) $\e_\nu \ne 1$ for only finitely-many valuations $\nu$;

b) $\prod_\nu \e_\nu = 1$ (a consequence of the quadratic reciprocity law);

c) $\e_\nu = 1$ if $n=1$ or if $n=2$ and $d\in (-1)(K_\nu^*)^2$;

d) $\e_\nu = (-1)^{s_\nu(s_\nu-1)/2}$ for every real valuation $\nu$;

e) $\e_\nu=1$ for every complex valuation $\nu$;

f) ${\rm sign}\; d_\nu = (-1)^{s_\nu}$ for every real valuation $\nu$ (here $d_\nu$ is the image of $d$ under the isomorphism $K_\nu\to \R$).

Cf. [Ha3], [Ha4], [Ha5], [Ha6], [Ha7], [OM], [La], [We]

#### Elliptic curves

The Hasse invariant of an elliptic curve $X$ over a field $K$ of characteristic $p>0$ is the number 0 or 1 depending on whether the endomorphism of the cohomology group $H^1(X,\mathcal{O}_X)$ induced by the Frobenius endomorphism of $X$ is null or bijective. Curves for which the Hasse invariant is zero are called supersingular.

Cf. [Ma]

How to Cite This Entry:
Hasse invariant. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Hasse_invariant&oldid=21571
This article was adapted from an original article by E.B. Vinberg (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article