# Codimension

The codimension (or quotient or factor dimension) of a subspace $L$ of a vector space $V$ is the dimension of the quotient space $V/L$; it is denoted by $\codim_VL$, or simply by $\codim L$, and is equal to the dimension of the orthogonal complement of $L$ in $V$. One has

$$\dim L+\codim L=\dim V.$$

If $M$ and $N$ are two subspaces of $V$ of finite codimension, then $M\cap N$ and $M+N$ are also of finite codimension, and

$$\codim(M+N)+\codim(M\cap N)=\codim M+\codim N.$$

The codimension of a submanifold $N$ of a differentiable manifold $M$ is the codimension of the tangent subspace $T_x(N)$ of the tangent space $T_x(M)$ at $x\in N$. If $M$ and $N$ are finite-dimensional, then

$$\codim N=\dim M-\dim N.$$

If $M$ and $N$ are differentiable manifolds, if $L$ is a submanifold of $N$ and if $f\colon M\to N$ is a differentiable mapping transversal to $L$, then

$$\codim f^{-1}(L)=\codim L.$$

The codimension of an algebraic subvariety (or an analytic subspace) $Y$ of an algebraic variety (analytic space) $X$ is the difference

$$\codim Y=\dim X-\dim Y.$$

How to Cite This Entry:
Codimension. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Codimension&oldid=43514
This article was adapted from an original article by V.E. GovorovA.F. Kharshiladze (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article