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Simple-iteration method

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A method for approximately solving a system of linear algebraic equations $ Ax = b $ that can be transformed to the form $ x = Bx + c $ and whose solution is looked for as the limit of a sequence $ x ^ {k+} 1 = B x ^ {k} + c $, $ k = 0 , 1 \dots $ where $ x ^ {0} $ is an initial approximation. In order that the simple-iteration method converges for any initial approximation $ x ^ {0} $ it is necessary and sufficient that all eigenvalues of $ B $ are less than one in modulus; it is sufficient that some norm of $ B $ is less than one. If in some norm, compatible with the norm of a vector $ x $, $ B $ satisfies $ \| B \| \leq \rho < 1 $, then the simple-iteration method converges at the rate of a geometric series and the estimate

$$ \| x ^ {m} - x \| \leq \rho ^ {m} \| x ^ {0} - x \| $$

holds for its error.

In the case of a cubic, octahedral or spherical vector norm, the condition $ \| B \| \leq \rho $ is fulfilled if

1) $ \sum _ {j=} 1 ^ {n} | b _ {ij} | \leq \rho $, $ i = 1 \dots n $;

2) $ \sum _ {i=} 1 ^ {n} | b _ {ij} | \leq \rho $, $ j = 1 \dots n $;

3) $ \sum _ {i , j = 1 } ^ {n} b _ {ij} ^ {2} \leq \rho ^ {2} $.

The simplest version of the method corresponds to the case when one takes $ I - A $, where $ I $ is the identity matrix, for $ B $. If all diagonal entries of $ A $ are non-zero, then, choosing $ b = D ^ {-} 1 ( D - A ) $ and $ c = D ^ {-} 1 b $, where $ D $ is the diagonal matrix with as diagonal entries those of $ A $, one obtains the Jacobi method or the method of simultaneous displacement.

A particular case of the simple-iteration method is the method with $ B = I - \tau A $ and $ c = \tau b $, where $ \tau $ is an iteration parameter, chosen from the condition that the norm of $ I - \tau A $ is minimal with respect to $ \tau $. If $ \gamma _ {1} $ and $ \gamma _ {2} $ are the minimal and maximal eigenvalues of a symmetric positive-definite matrix $ A $ and $ \tau = 2 / ( \gamma _ {1} + \gamma _ {2} ) $, then one has for the matrix $ B $ in the spherical norm the estimate $ \| B \| \leq \rho $, with $ \rho = ( \gamma _ {2} - \gamma _ {1} ) / ( \gamma _ {2} + \gamma _ {1} ) < 1 $.

For a system of non-linear algebraic equations

$$ \phi _ {i} ( x) = 0 ,\ 1 \leq i \leq n ,\ x = ( x _ {1} \dots x _ {n} ) , $$

the simple-iteration method has the form

$$ x _ {i} ^ {k+} 1 = x _ {i} ^ {k} - \tau \phi _ {i} ( x ^ {k} ) ,\ 1 \leq i \leq n ,\ k \geq 0 . $$

The problem of choosing the iteration parameter $ \tau $ is solved in dependence on the differentiability properties of the $ \phi _ {i} $. Often it is subjected to the requirement that the method converges locally in a neighbourhood of a solution.

References

[1] D.K. Faddeev, V.N. Faddeeva, "Computational methods of linear algebra" , Freeman (1963) (Translated from Russian)
[2] I.S. Berezin, N.P. Zhidkov, "Computing methods" , Pergamon (1973) (Translated from Russian)
[3] J.M. Ortega, W.C. Rheinboldt, "Iterative solution of non-linear equations in several variables" , Acad. Press (1970)
[4] A.A. Samarskii, E.S. Nikolaev, "Numerical methods for grid equations" , 1–2 , Birkhäuser (1989) (Translated from Russian)
How to Cite This Entry:
Simple-iteration method. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Simple-iteration_method&oldid=48702
This article was adapted from an original article by E.S. Nikolaev (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article