# Dickman-function(2)

The unique continuous solution of the system

$$\rho ( u ) = 1 ( 0 \leq u \leq 1 ) ,$$

$$u \rho ^ \prime ( u ) = - \rho ( u - 1 ) ( u > 1 ) .$$

The Dickman function $\rho ( u )$ occurs in the problem of estimating the number $\Psi ( x,y )$ of positive integers not exceeding $x$ that are free of prime factors greater than $y$: for any fixed $u > 0$, one has $\Psi ( x,x ^ { {1 / u } } ) \sim \rho ( u ) x$ as $u \rightarrow \infty$[a2], [a4].

The function $\rho ( u )$ is positive, non-increasing and tends to zero at a rate faster than exponential as $u \rightarrow \infty$. A precise asymptotic estimate is given by the de Bruijn–Alladi formula [a1], [a3]:

$$\rho ( u ) = ( 1 + O ( { \frac{1}{u} } ) ) \sqrt { { \frac{\xi ^ \prime ( u ) }{2 \pi } } } \times$$

$$\times { \mathop{\rm exp} } \left \{ \gamma - u \xi ( u ) + \int\limits _ { 0 } ^ { \xi ( u ) } { { \frac{e ^ {s} - 1 }{s} } } {ds } \right \} ( u > 1 ) ,$$

where $\gamma$ is the Euler constant and $\xi ( u )$ is the unique positive solution of the equation $e ^ {\xi ( u ) } = 1 + u \xi ( u )$.

#### References

 [a1] K. Alladi, "The Turán–Kubilius inequality for integers without large prime factors" J. Reine Angew. Math. , 335 (1982) pp. 180–196 [a2] N.G. de Bruijn, "On the number of positive integers $\leq x$ and free of prime factors $> y$" Nederl. Akad. Wetensch. Proc. Ser. A , 54 (1951) pp. 50–60 [a3] N.G. de Bruijn, "The asymptotic behaviour of a function occurring in the theory of primes" J. Indian Math. Soc. (N.S.) , 15 (1951) pp. 25–32 [a4] A. Hildebrand, G. Tenenbaum, "Integers without large prime factors" J. de Théorie des Nombres de Bordeaux , 5 (1993) pp. 411–484
How to Cite This Entry:
Dickman-function(2). Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Dickman-function(2)&oldid=50124
This article was adapted from an original article by A. Hildebrand (originator), which appeared in Encyclopedia of Mathematics - ISBN 1402006098. See original article