Irregular prime number
Kummer's test allows one to solve for each given prime number the problem of whether it is regular or not: For an odd prime number to be regular it is necessary and sufficient that none of the numerators of the first Bernoulli numbers is divisible by (cf. ).
The problem of the distribution of regular and irregular prime numbers arose in this connection. Tables of the Bernoulli numbers and Kummer's test indicated that among the first hundred there are only three irregular prime numbers, 37, 59, 67 (the numerators of , and are multiples of 37, 59 and 67, respectively). E. Kummer conjectured that there are on the average twice as many regular prime numbers as irregular ones. Later C.L. Siegel  conjectured that the ratio of irregular prime numbers to regular prime numbers contained in an interval tends to as (here is the base of natural logarithms). Up till now (1989) it is only known that the number of irregular prime numbers is infinite. There are 439 regular and 285 irregular prime numbers among the odd numbers smaller than 5500, cf. .
For any regular the Fermat equation
does not have non-zero solutions in the rational numbers .
Let be an irregular prime number, let be the indices of the Bernoulli numbers among whose numerators are divisible by and let and be natural numbers such that is a prime number smaller than and . Let
If for each , ,
then for the irregular prime number Fermat's theorem holds, i.e. the Fermat equation is unsolvable in the non-zero rational numbers. This is called Vandiver's test. The truth of Fermat's theorem for all exponents smaller than 5500 has been proved by using Vandiver's test (cf. ).
|||E. Kummer, "Allgemeiner Beweis des Fermat'schen Satzes, dass die Gleichung durch ganze Zahlen unlösbar ist, für alle diejenigen Potentz-Exponenten , welche ungerade Primzahlen sind und in den Zählern der ersten Bernoulli'schen Zahlen als Factoren nicht Vorkommen" J. Reine Angew. Math. , 40 (1850) pp. 130–138|
|||C.L. Siegel, "Zu zwei Bemerkungen Kummers" Nachr. Akad. Wiss. Göttingen Math. Phys. Kl. , 6 (1964) pp. 51–57|
|||Z.I. Borevich, I.R. Shafarevich, "Number theory" , Acad. Press (1966) (Translated from Russian) (German translation: Birkhäuser, 1966)|
|||H.S. Vandiver, "Examination of methods of attack on the second case of Fermat's last theorem" Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA , 40 : 8 (1954) pp. 732–735|
The truth of Fermat's theorem has been established for all exponents by S. Wagstaff [a1].
His computations show that of the 11733 odd prime numbers smaller than are regular. This is in close agreement with Siegel's conjecture, which expects of all prime numbers to be regular.
More generally, one defines the index of irregularity of an odd prime number as the number of indices for which divides the numerator of the Bernoulli number . The regular prime numbers are the prime numbers satisfying . Heuristically, one expects the fraction of prime numbers for which to be , and this is confirmed by the data in [a1]. It was proved by Eichler that the first case of Fermat's theorem holds for a prime exponent when (cf. [a2]). See also Fermat great theorem.
|[a1]||S. Wagstaff, "The irregular primes to 125,000" Math. Comp. , 32 (1978) pp. 583–591|
|[a2]||L.C. Washington, "Introduction to cyclotomic fields" , Springer (1982)|
|[a3]||H.M. Edwards, "Fermat's last theorem. A genetic introduction to algebraic number theory" , Springer (1977)|
|[a4]||S. Lang, "Cyclotomic fields" , 1–2 , Springer (1978–1980)|
Irregular prime number. Encyclopedia of Mathematics. URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Irregular_prime_number&oldid=18479