# Routh-Hurwitz criterion

*Hurwitz criterion*

A necessary and sufficient condition for all the roots of a polynomial

with real coefficients and , to have negative real parts. It consists of the following: All principal minors , , of the Hurwitz matrix are positive (cf. Minor). Here is the matrix of order whose -th row has the form

where, by definition, if or (the Hurwitz condition or the Routh–Hurwitz condition). This criterion was obtained by A. Hurwitz [1] and is a generalization of the work of E.J. Routh (see Routh theorem).

A polynomial satisfying the Hurwitz condition is called a Hurwitz polynomial, or, in applications of the Routh–Hurwitz criterion in the stability theory of oscillating systems, a stable polynomial. There are other criteria for the stability of polynomials, such as the Routh criterion, the Liénard–Chipart criterion, and methods for determining the number of real roots of a polynomial are also known.

#### References

[1] | A. Hurwitz, "Ueber die Bedingungen, unter welchen eine Gleichung nur Wurzeln mit negativen reellen Theilen besitzt" Math. Ann. , 46 (1895) pp. 273–284 |

[2] | F.R. [F.R. Gantmakher] Gantmacher, "The theory of matrices" , 1 , Chelsea, reprint (1977) (Translated from Russian) |

#### Comments

See also Routh theorem.

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Routh-Hurwitz criterion.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Routh-Hurwitz_criterion&oldid=33371