# Reflection

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A mapping of an -dimensional simply-connected space of constant curvature (i.e. of a Euclidean or affine space , a sphere or a hyperbolic (Lobachevskii) space ) the set of fixed points of which is an -dimensional hyperplane. The set is called the mirror of the mapping ; in other words, is a reflection in . Every reflection is uniquely defined by its mirror. The order (period) of a reflection in the group of all motions of is equal to 2, i.e. .

The Euclidean or affine space can be identified with the vector space of its parallel translations. The mapping is then a linear orthogonal transformation of with matrix in a certain orthonormal basis, and conversely, every orthogonal transformation of with this matrix in a certain orthonormal basis is a reflection in . More generally, a linear transformation of an arbitrary vector space over a field , of characteristic other than 2, is called a linear reflection if and if the rank of the transformation is equal to . In this case, the subspace of fixed vectors relative to has codimension in , the subspace of eigenvectors with eigenvalue has dimension and . If is a linear form on such that when , and if is an element such that , then is defined by the formula The description of a reflection in an arbitrary simply-connected space of constant curvature can be reduced to the description of linear reflections in the following way. Every such space can be imbedded as a hypersurface in a real -dimensional vector space in such a way that the motions of can be extended to linear transformations of . Moreover, in a suitable coordinate system in the equations of the hypersurface can be written in the following way:   Every hypersurface in , given this imbedding, is the intersection with of a certain -dimensional subspace in , and every reflection in is induced by a linear reflection in .

If, in the definition of a linear reflection, the requirement that is dropped, then the more general concept of a pseudo-reflection is obtained. If is the field of complex numbers and is a pseudo-reflection of finite order (not necessarily equal to 2), then is called a unitary reflection. Every biholomorphic automorphism of finite order of a bounded symmetric domain in a complex space the set of fixed points of which has a complex codimension 1 is also called a unitary reflection.