# Difference between revisions of "Newton-Leibniz formula"

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− | The formula expressing the value of a definite integral of a given function $f$ over an interval as the difference of the values at the | + | The formula expressing the value of a definite integral of a given integrable function $f$ over an interval as the difference of the values at the endpoints of the interval of any primitive (cf. [[Integral calculus|Integral calculus]]) $F$ of the function $f$: |

\begin{equation}\label{eq:*} | \begin{equation}\label{eq:*} | ||

\int\limits_a^bf(x)\,dx = F(b)-F(a). | \int\limits_a^bf(x)\,dx = F(b)-F(a). | ||

\end{equation} | \end{equation} | ||

− | It is named after I. Newton and G. Leibniz, who both knew the rule expressed by \ref{eq:*}, although it was published later. | + | It is named after I. Newton and G. Leibniz, who both knew the rule expressed by \ref{eq:*}, although it was published later. It is also known as "Fundamental theorem of calculus". |

If $f$ is [[ Lebesgue integral | Lebesgue integrable]] over $[a,b]$ and $F$ is defined by | If $f$ is [[ Lebesgue integral | Lebesgue integrable]] over $[a,b]$ and $F$ is defined by | ||

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A generalization of the Newton–Leibniz formula is the [[Stokes formula|Stokes formula]] for orientable manifolds with a boundary. | A generalization of the Newton–Leibniz formula is the [[Stokes formula|Stokes formula]] for orientable manifolds with a boundary. | ||

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====References==== | ====References==== | ||

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+ | |valign="top"|{{Ref|Ru}}|| W. Rudin, "Real and complex analysis" , McGraw-Hill (1966). | ||

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+ | |valign="top"|{{Ref|St}}|| K.R. Stromberg, "Introduction to classical real analysis" , Wadsworth (1981). | ||

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## Latest revision as of 20:49, 8 December 2013

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification: *Primary:* 26A06 *Secondary:* 26A46 [MSN][ZBL]

The formula expressing the value of a definite integral of a given integrable function $f$ over an interval as the difference of the values at the endpoints of the interval of any primitive (cf. Integral calculus) $F$ of the function $f$: \begin{equation}\label{eq:*} \int\limits_a^bf(x)\,dx = F(b)-F(a). \end{equation} It is named after I. Newton and G. Leibniz, who both knew the rule expressed by \ref{eq:*}, although it was published later. It is also known as "Fundamental theorem of calculus".

If $f$ is Lebesgue integrable over $[a,b]$ and $F$ is defined by \begin{equation*} F(x) = \int\limits_a^xf(t)\,dt + C, \end{equation*} where $C$ is a constant, then $F$ is absolutely continuous, $F'(x) = f(x)$ almost-everywhere on $[a,b]$ (everywhere if $f$ is continuous on $[a,b]$) and \ref{eq:*} is valid.

A generalization of the Newton–Leibniz formula is the Stokes formula for orientable manifolds with a boundary.

#### References

[Ru] | W. Rudin, "Real and complex analysis" , McGraw-Hill (1966). |

[St] | K.R. Stromberg, "Introduction to classical real analysis" , Wadsworth (1981). |

**How to Cite This Entry:**

Newton-Leibniz formula.

*Encyclopedia of Mathematics.*URL: http://encyclopediaofmath.org/index.php?title=Newton-Leibniz_formula&oldid=28964