# Idempotent semi-ring

*dioid*

A semi-ring with idempotent addition. So, a set equipped with binary operations (addition) and (multiplication) and neutral elements and is called an idempotent semi-ring if the following basic properties are valid for all elements :

i) (idempotent addition);

ii) ;

iii) ;

iv) ;

v) ;

vi) ;

vii) ;

viii) .

An idempotent semi-ring is commutative if for all . Different versions of this axiomatics are used, see e.g. [a1], [a2], [a3], [a4], [a5], [a6], [a7], [a8], [a9], [a10]. Idempotent semi-rings are often called dioids, see e.g. [a3], [a9]. The concept of an idempotent semi-ring is a basic concept in idempotent analysis. This concept has many applications in different optimization problems (including dynamic programming), computer science, automata and formal language theory, numerical methods, parallel programming, etc. (cf. also Idempotent algorithm and [a1], [a2], [a3], [a4], [a5], [a6], [a7], [a8], [a9], [a10], [a11]).

### Example 1.

Let be the set (where is the field of real numbers) equipped with the operations and (usual addition); set , . Similarly, let be the set equipped with the operations and ; in this case and . It is easy to check that and are (isomorphic) commutative idempotent semi-rings.

### Example 2.

Let be the set of all non-negative real numbers endowed with the operations and (usual multiplication); , . This idempotent semi-ring is isomorphic to . The isomorphism is given by .

### Example 3.

with the operations , and neutral elements and (the cases , are possible).

### Example 4.

Let be the set of -matrices with entries belonging to an idempotent semi-ring . Then is a non-commutative idempotent semi-ring with respect to matrix addition and matrix multiplication.

The Boolean algebra is an example of a finite idempotent semi-ring. There are many other interesting examples of idempotent semi-rings, see e.g. [a1], [a2], [a3], [a4], [a5], [a6], [a7], [a8], [a9], [a10], [a11].

There is a natural partial order on any idempotent semi-ring (as well as on any idempotent semi-group; cf. also Idempotent semi-ring). By definition, if and only if . For this relation, reflexivity is equivalent to idempotency of the (generalized) addition, whereas transitivity, respectively anti-symmetry, follow from associativity, respectively commutativity, of this operation. On (and also on the semi-rings described in the Examples 2 and 3), this ordering relation coincides with the natural one; on it is the opposite of the natural ordering relation on the real axis. Every element in an idempotent semi-ring is "non-negative" : . Indeed, . Similarly, for all one has , and if . Using this standard partial order it is possible to define in the usual way the notions of upper and lower bounds, bounded sets, (and ) for upper- (lower-) bounded sets (respectively, ), etc.

If the multiplication in a semi-ring is invertible on , then is called a semi-field. For example, is a semi-field. Idempotent semi-fields and semi-rings with idempotent multiplication are especially interesting.

#### References

[a1] | A.V. Aho, J.E. Hopcroft, J.D. Ullman, "The design and analysis of computer algorithms" , Addison-Wesley (1976) |

[a2] | B.A. Carré, "Graphs and networks" , Clarendon Press and Oxford Univ. Press (1979) |

[a3] | M. Gondran, M. Minoux, "Graphes et algorithms" , Ed. Eyrolles (1979; 1988) |

[a4] | R.A. Cuningham-Green, "Minimax algebra" , Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems , 166 , Springer (1979) |

[a5] | U. Zimmermann, "Linear and combinatorial optimization in ordered algebraic structures" Ann. Discrete Math. , 10 (1981) pp. 1–380 |

[a6] | "Mathematical aspects of computer engineering" V.P. Maslov (ed.) K.A. Volosov (ed.) , MIR (1988) (In Russian) |

[a7] | "Idempotent analysis" V.P. Maslov (ed.) S.N. Samborskii (ed.) , Amer. Math. Soc. (1992) (In Russian) |

[a8] | V.N. Kolokoltsov, V.P. Maslov, "Idempotent analysis and applications" , Kluwer Acad. Publ. (1996) (In Russian) |

[a9] | F.L. Baccelli, G. Cohen, G.J. Olsder, J.-P. Quadrat, "Synchronization and linearity: an algebra for discrete event systems" , Wiley (1992) |

[a10] | J.S. Golan, "The theory of semirings with applications in mathematics and theoretical computer science" , Pitman monographs and surveys in pure and applied mathematics , 54 , Longman (1992) |

[a11] | "Idempotency" J. Gunawardena (ed.) , Publ. I. Newton Institute , Cambridge Univ. Press (in press) |

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Idempotent semi-ring.

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