# Domain invariance

Let be open. If is a one-to-one continuous function, then is open and is a homeomorphism. This is called the Brouwer invariance of domain theorem, and was proved by L.E.J. Brouwer in [a1]. This result immediately implies that if , then and are not homeomorphic. A similar result for infinite-dimensional vector spaces does not hold, as the subspace of shows. But Brouwer's theorem can be extended to compact fields in Banach spaces of type , as was shown by J. Schauder [a3]. Here, a compact field (a name coming from "compact vector field" ) is a mapping of the form , with a compact mapping. A more general result for arbitrary Banach spaces was established (by using degree theory for compact fields) by J. Leray [a2]. Several important results in the theory of differential equations were proved by using domain invariance as a tool.

#### References

[a1] | L.E.J. Brouwer, "Invariantz des -dimensionalen Gebiets" Math. Ann. , 71/2 (1912/3) pp. 305–313; 55–56 |

[a2] | J. Leray, "Topologie des espaces abstraits de M. Banach" C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris , 200 (1935) pp. 1083–1093 |

[a3] | J. Schauder, "Invarianz des Gebietes in Funktionalräumen" Studia Math. , 1 (1929) pp. 123–139 |

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Domain invariance.

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